There’s a bit of red-herring that does the rounds sometimes: landscapes should never contain people. On the contrary: they lend a sense of scale to the vista, as these two photos illustrate. This one was taken on the beach at Westward Ho! in North Devon and features a lone figure looking out to sea.
Out of the camera, the shot was much more drab; I warmed up the colour balance quite heavily to capture the reflective mood I sought.
My next shot was taken at sunset on Dunkery Beacon, the highest hill in Somerset. It features several figures in silhouette, enjoying the view at the end of their climb.
The walkers here convey not only scale but mood. Next time somebody is standing in the middle of your view, therefore, don’t just stand there seething until they walk away: think about how you can use them for creative effect.
Do you capture figures in your landscapes? Tell me about them and feel free to share a link.
In the light of the billions that HS2 is likely to cost – anywhere between 40 and 70 (think of a number and then double it?) – here are five other more modest projects that could deliver a higher rate of return.
1. Upgrade the rest of the old Southern main line
To the east of Exeter, the old Southern Railway is still in service, albeit largely as a single-track stopping service for most of the distance to Salisbury. With most of the Cotswold line now having been re-doubled, this is now the only main line out of London that peters out into a single track for half of its length.
Reinstating the second track for all of its length and bringing back the second platform at Yeovil Junction to service would enable South West Trains, the current franchise holder, to run a mixture of express and local services between London Waterloo and Exeter (and perhaps even Plymouth once more, in the longer term). Proper competition with First Great Western would encourage both companies to improve their services further.
Acronyms are much in vogue among rail scheme supporters nowadays, it seems. By contrast with the Waterloo route to Wessex and beyond, the London Victoria to Brighton line is four track for much of its length. Even so, being such a busy commuter line, it runs at nearly full capacity for much of the time and features one particular pinch-point, the 37-arch Balcombe Viaduct, a marvel of Victorian engineering that crosses the Ouse Valley. This is only double track and a much more utilitarian modern concrete viaduct next to it would be a real eyesore.
Yet there is an alternative that would involve relaying only a few miles of empty trackbed between Lewes and Uckfield, as well as re-dualling the line north of Uckfield. This BML2 proposal would not just increase capacity in this busy travel corridor but could also, its supporters claim, provide connections through to Canary Wharf, Stratford International and Stansted Airport in the longer term.
3. Matlock to Manchester
Moving on from acronyms to alliteration, reopening this line would restore the direct connection from London’s St. Pancras terminus, also used by Eurostar high-speed continental services, to Manchester. Relaying some 15 miles of track would add capacity into Manchester from the Midland main line, which probably has more spare capacity than the line from Euston, as well as strengthening rail links into the Peak District – an area very popular with walkers and tourists.
A feasibility study carried out in 2004 concluded that the business case was for reopening the line in the period to 2011 was not very strong but improved over the longer term. On this basis, I hope the local authorities in the area keep the trackbed intact and continue to support Peak Rail, the group that is now operating and extending a heritage railway over the southern section of the route.
4. Harrogate to Northallerton
To the north of Leeds is another missing link. Severing it in the late 1960s cut a direct route from the city to the north-east of England as well as removing the city of Ripon – gateway to Wensleydale – from the rail network. The alternative, via York, takes the traveller around two sides of quite a large triangle.
5. Aylesbury to Leicester
Lack of freight capacity on the West Coast main line is often cited as a reason for building HS2. That being the case, the more cost effective response would be to reopen part of the old Great Central line from its current southern terminus at Aylesbury to Leicester, with the emphasis on freight traffic. There is, for example, a large and expanding road/rail freight interchange terminal at Daventry, near Rugby, where a connection could also be established to the West Coast main line. Serious proposals were put forward to reinstate this line during the 1990s – a parliamentary bill was even introduced – but the idea failed to gain traction. With about 70 miles of track to re-lay and most of the earthworks still in place, the cost of this scheme could well be less than a quarter of the cost of the HS2.
Political enthusiasm for the has shown that there is at least appetite for spending money on the railways. The five projects I have suggested would deliver greater capacity for passengers and freight in places where it is really needed – and cost a lot less than a high-speed grand projet.
Now over to you. Should these projects be pursued? Which other rail schemes would you like to see? Should we just spend the money on road schemes or broadband networks instead?
Sharing this post online generated an animated discussion on Twitter and the following suggested line reopenings:
The Kenilworth and Hampton-in-Arden to Coleshill line, linking the Chiltern line with Birmingham International Airport and the North.
March to Spalding, creating an alternative to the East Coast main line and another route for Felixstowe-bound freight trains.
Oxford to Cambridge, via Bedford.
Various other routes identified in the Association of Train-Operating Companies 2009 report Connecting Communities (PDF).
By contrast, one voice on Twitter argued that the North will rot without the infrastructure of HS2, which could cut travel times to London to less than two hours.
Thank you to everybody for your comments and suggestions: do keep them coming.
The horrendous storm that severed the main line between London and Cornwall today in Dawlish has illustrated the folly of closing a line some 50 years ago that could have served as a diversion.
The picturesque stretch of line between Dawlish Warren and Teignmouth is certainly picturesque:
Even so, it is the single point of failure in the West of England rail network – and today it failed in spectacular fashion, the raging sea demolishing the substantial sea wall, washing away all the ballast and leaving both tracks suspended in mid-air.
Whilst Network Rail has rightly pledged to rebuild the sea wall and reinstate the line, it will take several weeks and cost millions, both directly in repairs and indirectly in disruption to businesses in the region.
Until the late 1960s, an alternative route existed from Plymouth to Exeter via Tavistock and Okehampton. Both ends of this line are still in place:
Alas the central section – about 20 miles – was closed as part of the infamous Beeching cuts. There are already plans to re-open the section from Bere Alston to Tavistock but I would argue that it is now time to extend the logic and restore this severed artery all the way back to the buffers at Meldon, west of Okehampton.
Doing so would mean that bad weather can never again cut rail links from the South West to the rest of the country; it would also make the heart of this beautiful county much more accessible to the tourist trade on which it has come to depend. If the government can find anywhere between £40 bn and £70 bn to fund HS2, it surely ought to be able to find a much smaller sum to pay for a less ambitious but nevertheless important scheme like this – and many others like it.
Taken on a pedestrian level crossing outside Romsey, Hampshire, this is a classic ‘photo as metaphor’ shot.
I shot it hand-held rather than on a tripod because there is always the risk, even on a quiet, single-track line like this, of being caught unawares by a train that isn’t on the public timetable. Real Time Trains is a useful resource for finding out the times of all trains – freight as well as passenger – so that you don’t find yourself in the horrifying position of hearing a train bearing down behind you. Even so, exercise extreme caution and do not linger on level crossings for any longer than absolutely necessary.
Post-processing of this shot in Lightroom included making full use of the dynamic range of the raw file, darkening the sky a little and selectively lightening some of the undergrowth.
The death of Claudio Abbado earlier today marks the passing of an era for me. Along with Herbert von Karajan and Leonard Bernstein, he was one of three celebrated conductors from the Deutsche Grammophon roster who led me on a voyage of musical discovery during my teenage years. Obituaries abound – as already published by Gramophone and the Daily Telegraph – so I will reflect on three of my favourite Abbado recordings.
The first is not obvious territory for an Italian maestro, although it dates from his years at the helm of the London Symphony Orchestra during an era when conductors ploughed through symphony cycles to create CD boxed sets. Mendelssohn’s Second Symphony, the Hymn of Praise, seemed to me like an undiscovered, alternative Choral Symphony – better in some ways to my younger ears than Beethoven’s Ninth because there was more choral than symphony. In particular, I liked his monumental treatment of the opening brass chorale and the exciting way it returned both at the entrance of the choir and again right at the end of the work.
Freshness characterise not just the orchestral movements of the Hymn of Praise but also my second choice: Schubert’s Fifth Symphony. Abbado recorded it as part of a Schubert cycle with the Chamber Orchestra of Europe. Compared with period orchestral accounts, it lacks the pungency of gut strings and more rustic-sounding woodwinds, yet it is utterly charming and very well played; the bustling opening bars set the tone perfectly.
My final choice sees him paired with the illustrious pianist Maurizio Pollini. of Beethoven’s Pastoral Symphony with the Vienna Philharmonic mainly for the couplings: the Choral Fantasy – part piano sonata, part piano concerto, part – well, just what do you call a piece that concludes with piano, soloists, chorus and orchestra? Pollini’s playng was suitably aristocratic and the piece ends with a suitably cheerful and emphatic flourish. The recording began with Beethoven’s enigmatic Meerestille und glückliche Fahrt and showed how well Abbado could coax pianissimi from a large choir and orchestra. His account of the Pastoral Symphony was panned by critics, mainly for being too slow as I recall, but I certainly enjoyed all the detail he brought out in the orchestral texture.
If I say that I bought the cassette of his recording during a school French exchange visit to Paris during the 1980s, that dates me somewhat. Unlike Karajan, who died in 1989, Abbado moved well beyond the sounds of my teenage years and went on to embrace the authentic music movement, forming Orchestra Mozart in 2004 to perform with hand-picked like-minded musicians. He surely leaves a huge legacy, both in terms of recordings and the musicians he must have inspired over the decades.
Yesterday afternoon, I went to Hythe Marina on the south side of Southampton Water and was fortunate to capture blue-hour shots of two Cunard ocean liners in port.
Queen Elizabeth (on the right) set sail in the evening on a round-the-world cruise via New York, San Francisco, Australia, the Far East and the Suez Canal; Queen Mary 2 left at almost the same time for a cruise around the Eastern Hemisphere around the Cape of Good Hope to Australia and the Far East, also returning through the Suez Canal.
With the distinctive black and white liveries of their liners and fortune in being able to drawn on the dignity of monarchy in the names they give them, Cunard Line is almost uniquely placed in being able to evoke the romance of the inter-war golden age of ocean liners.
There are snapshots that you can take on your mobile phone – and then there are great shots: the ones that you’ll want to frame and showcase online. These are my tips for capturing the ones you’ll want to add to your portfolio.
1. Check the weather forecast before you go out.
A great landscape shot requires an interesting sky. From a photographic perspective, milky grey cloud – of the sort that accompanies drizzle or rain – is boring. That said, the few brief minutes after heavy rain finishes can be a very good time to take landscapes because the cloud looks smoky and interesting. Cloudless blue skies are also uninteresting; if you’re favoured by them, go out and enjoy the sun on your face (such days are all too rare in England) and don’t worry about taking serious photos.
2. Take your camera out at the right time of day.
Photographers talk about the ‘golden hours’ around sunrise and sunset for good reason: when the sun is low in the sky, haze softens its light and features in the landscape cast long shadows. These immediately make your subject look more appealing than if captured in the middle of the day, when the light is either very harsh beneath the midday sun or completely diffused by nondescript hazy cloud.
3. Check where the sun is going to rise and set.
Smartphone apps like The Photographer’s Ephemeris are a very good way to work out the optimum time of year to photograph, for example, the sun rising behind a particular peak or, in the case of ‘Manhattanhenge’, setting along one of New York’s concrete canyons.
4. Take the right gear with you.
If you’re photographing landscapes when the sun is low in the sky, as well as your camera, you will definitely need a tripod. It simply needs to prevent camera shake when you take the photo and doesn’t need to be expensive if you’re starting out.
Whilst any point’n'shoot camera with a self-timer that screws into a tripod will do the job, for better results you need to invest slightly more in a camera that shoots uncompressed ‘RAW’ files as well as JPG files. Raw files (Raw isn’t actually an acronym) are to JPGs what dough is to bread. Just as dough can be kneaded into any shape you like before you bake it in the oven, raw image files can be enhanced – ‘post-processed’ – using software such as Adobe Lightroom before export to JPG to a far greater extent than JPGs created in-camera.
Ideally, your camera will be a DSLR (digital single-lens reflex) camera that enables you to change lenses in future; better quality glass in front of your camera’s sensor is a better way to improve image quality than buying a new camera body equipped with a basic ‘kit lens’.
Further accessories in which you could invest for landscape photography are neutral density (ND filters) and remote shutter releases. Varying in strength, ND filters reduce the amount of light hitting your cameras and enable you to increase the length of your exposures, blurring skies and water to create pleasingly dreamy effects. Wired or remote-control shutter releases enable you to take very long exposures without inadvertantly shaking the camera when operating the shutter by pressing a start/stop button on a handset away from the camera body.
5. Stand in front of an interesting view
Any view worth photographing comprises a good sky as the backdrop, interesting detail on the horizon – mountains or hills, say – and foreground elements that lead the eye towards the centre of it it, be it a river, road, railway,hedge, furrow or simply a rock or two. If these elements lead you in an S-shaped curve towards it, such as in the photo below, so much the better.
Landscapes that don’t work so well are those which lack interest, such as flat, empty fields, large expanses of water or empty deserts. Maps are a good way of identifying potential locations; you can also take a look at sites like 500px.com/map or panoramio.com to find places from which other photographers have taken great shots.
6. Better still, crouch or lie flat
A dog’s eye view of the world lends greater prominence to the foreground and thus increases the depth of field in the image. A very simple technique that can be used by anybody, it is missed by so many casual phototgraphers.
7. Frame your shot carefully
Many novice photographers make the mistake of placing a tree, say, and the horizon dead centre in the frame. It is far better to follow the ‘rule of thirds’ and move position so that the tree appears in the lower left-hand third of the frame and the horizon traces a line across the upper third.
8. Keep it simple
Avoid distracting elements, such as tree branches intruding into the top and sides of the frame, by focusing in tighter or moving to a different position. It’s always good practice to look around the perimeter of the frame before pressing the shutter.
9. Expose for the highlights
DSLRs and many compact cameras nowadays include histogram displays on the rear screen that illustrate the spread of tones, from dark to light, in the image captured. Take a test shot and, if it shows clipped highlights (pure white), dial in negative exposure compensation to darken the overall image and ensure that tones other than pure white are captured across the image. By shooting raw files, you can restore the correct exposure, whilst retaining detail that would otherwise have been blown out in bright areas, during post-processing.
Taking the right gear to a good location under broken skies early or late in the day will maximse your chances of capturing some memorable shots. Your next step should be to use the alchemy of post-processing to turn the rather flat raw image that comes out of your camera into the golden landscape that you saw in your mind’s eye.
Perhaps more than any other, Autumn is a season for visual metaphor in landscape photography. The sight of leaves turning colour and falling evokes advancing age, maturity, wisdom and looking back wistfully on years gone by and, in particular, the happier times among them.
Tip 1: Make shades of copper and gold the dominant colours in your composition, as in this view of livestock grazing in a field on the Mottisfont Estate in Hampshire, owned by the National Trust:
Tip 2: To amplify the nostalgic metaphor, introduce water: the river of life. This is a view of the stream that runs through the estate:
Tip 3: For additional interest, add another focal point, such as a lone figure or, as here, water rushing over a weir:
This is the start of a culvert that ensures the estate stream does not flood the grounds of the main house; it provided the ideal opportunity for a long-exposure shot. It could be said to represent the turbulence of life-changing events, although that it probably taking symbolism too far!
Tip 4: In taking all of these long-exposure photos in fading, late afternoon sunlight, a tripod is essential to avoid camera shake and permit the use of ISO1OO to minimise noise.
Tip 5: Key to bathing the landscape in a golden autumnal glow is shadow detail and rich saturation. Whilst you can use neutral density filters and gels to achieve these effects in-camera, it is often easier to do so via post-processing in Lightroom or Photohsop.
Each of the photos above trended Popular on 500px.com shortly after upload.
My wife and I spent a week earlier this autumn at the Sol Gavilanes Hotel in Cala Galdana. Following a great holiday there a year ago and being too busy to look at any other options, having moved house and been busy with garden improvements, we booked again with Thomson. We weren’t disappointed. The hotel is very well-managed, clean and comfortable, serving excellent food in both of its buffet restaurants. Unfortunately, it still does not offer free WiFi.
So what was different this time? Most importantly, we took advantage of being able to fly from Bournemouth airport, rather than Gatwick. This cut down our travel time dramatically and meant that we could get a bit of sleep at home before setting off for our early-morning flight (last year, we drove through the night before catching one at a similar time); we were also able to check in for it a little later.
We took a boat trip along the coast. Along the way, we passed some fascinating rock formations, not least the sea arch at Punta de Sant’Aleix.
The voyage was an ideal way to take a look at other beaches along the coast; I have to say, however, that none surpassed our favourite, Cala Mitjana.
My birthday fell half-way through our stay and, on our return to the beach, we were delighted to find that the hotel had left a complimentary bottle of Cava in an ice bucket for us. Along with the fresh fruit left for us a couple of days previously, it was a lovely touch.
Finally, the weather turned a little more unsettled towards the end of our stay: windy but no rain. Whilst it wasn’t so good for sunbathing, I enjoyed dodging higher waves in the surf and we enjoyed a couple of fabulous sunsets.
We were really glad we paid a return visit and are now interested in trying other hotels in the Sol portfolio.
This photo of fireworks was taken in November 2010 from St. Catherine’s Hill, to the south-east of Winchester and captures the colour of the annual firework display staged near the city.
Like others organised in towns and villages around the country, this ostensibly commemorates the foiling of the 1605 ‘Gunpowder Plot’, in which a group of Catholics conspired to blow up the Houses of Parliament in Westminster during the State Opening of that year’s session by King James VI. Guy Fawkes was tried and executed for the crime but he was only a co-conspirator rather than the ring-leader. At least that’s how the tradition started; nowadays, in reality, it’s mainly because most people enjoy a good bonfire and firework display.
This photo was captured as a 30-second exposure at ISO 100, enabling me to capture multiple fireworks in one shot. Out of the camera, the light detail looked blown but backing highlights down to zero in Lightroom enabled me to recapture detail and a lot of colour. Other than cropping to remove distracting street lights, the image didn’t need a huge amound more work. It trended Popular soon after upload to 500px.com.